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2018年,这些重大税改政策牵动你的“钱包”

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发表于 2018-1-2 10:04:26 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式


制图:郭 祥

税收关系国家“钱袋子”,更牵动每个纳税人的“钱包”。进入2018年,为推动经济高质量发展,税制改革无疑将加快步伐,更多相关部署将落地生效。那么,哪些税改与你息息相关?

环保税:从1月1日开始企业事业单位等污染环境要缴税

2018年1月1日,《中华人民共和国环境保护税法》正式施行,我国将迎来一个新的税种——环境保护税,征收排污费成为历史。

环保税向谁开征?环保税法明确:直接向环境排放应税污染物的企业事业单位和其他生产经营者为环境保护税的纳税人。

环保税怎么收?根据污染物排放浓度实行差别化征税,即多排放多缴税。

“环保税的到来,意味着我国在完善绿色税收体系上走出了突破性的一步,强化了税收对生态环境保护的力度。”中国财政科学研究院院长刘尚希说。

环保税缴到哪里?全部作为地方收入。据悉,目前,多地结合实际已为开征环保税确定了适用税额,做好开征保障,相关企业也加大了环保投入。这个税种增加的环保资金,将用于让地方政府更好地治理污染。

增值税:金融投资者今年开始要考虑税收成本

包括银行、信托公司、公募基金管理公司及其子公司、证券公司及其子公司……对资管产品管理人来说,今年开始要考虑增值税的事儿了。

从2018年1月1日开始,资管产品管理人要对资管产品运营业务的收益按照3%的征收率缴纳增值税。

北京国家会计学院财税政策与应用研究所所长李旭红说,对资管产品管理人征税,并不一定直接影响投资者的收益,但对金融收益及金融市场稳定会起到调节作用。站在金融机构的角度,今后,金融产品的创设及定价需综合考虑税收成本因素。

车辆购置税:汽车购置税恢复至10%,新能源汽车继续免征

“购置税七五折倒计时还有 天”……2017年末,不少汽车经销商用车辆购置税优惠政策作为卖点,吸引顾客抓住这一波税收利好购车。

自2018年1月1日起,对购置1.6升及以下排量的乘用车,由2017年按7.5%的税率征收车辆购置税恢复至按10%的法定税率征收。

不过,自2018年1月1日至2020年12月31日,国家对购置的新能源汽车继续免征车辆购置税。

“取消折扣主要出于环境保护考虑。”李旭红说,2018年,车购税的政策调整由原有的普惠性优惠,转为新能源的专项税收优惠。政策更具针对性,预期会产生良好的环保效应。

关税:部分进口食品、保健品、药品等消费品税率大幅下降

2018年,我国部分消费品和原材料迎来关税大调整,调整后税则税目总数为8549个。

自2017年12月1日起,降低部分消费品进口关税,平均税率由17.3%降至7.7%。涵盖食品、保健品、药品、日化用品、衣着鞋帽、家用设备、文化娱乐、日杂百货等各类消费品,共涉及187个8位税号商品。

此外,自2018年1月1日起,取消钢材、绿泥石等产品出口关税,并适当降低三元复合肥、磷灰石、煤焦油、木片、硅铬铁、钢坯等产品出口关税……

李旭红说,一系列关税调整举措,充分体现中国坚定不移推行国际贸易自由化的决心,反映了我国与全球合作共赢的态度和自信。

水资源税:征收试点范围新增北京等9地

从2017年12月1日起,在北京、天津、山西、内蒙古、河南、山东、四川、宁夏、陕西等9省区市开征水资源税,这是继2016年7月1日河北省率先试点后,我国资源税改革再迈关键一步。

“此次水资源税改革扩大范围,一个重要原则是税费平移,总体不增加企业和居民正常生产生活用水负担。”财政部税政司司长王建凡说。

依据不同取用水性质实行差别税额,地下水税额高于地表水,对特种行业从高征税,对限额内农业生产取用水免税……

“水资源关乎国计民生、生态安全。”国家税务总局财产和行为税司司长蔡自力说,2016年新纳入试点9省区市水资源费共计收入133亿元,征收水资源税收入意义并不大,但生态意义、绿色意义很大,以税收调节作用助推实施最严格的水资源管理制度。

地方税:加快完善税收法律制度框架

2017年12月27日,十二届全国人大常委会第三十一次会议表决通过烟叶税法和船舶吨税法,将于2018年7月1日起施行。从暂行条例上升为法律,这两部税法表明我国在落实税收法定原则方面迈出了坚定的步伐,也意味着2018年我国税收法定进程将全力加速。

“将税收暂行条例上升为法律是一种新的尝试,对今后解决税收暂行条例上升为法律提供借鉴和参考。”北京大学法学院教授刘剑文说,税收法定的提速,是加强国家治理体系和治理能力现代化进程中的一个重要举措。

谈到下一步如何深化税收制度改革,财政部部长肖捷在刚刚闭幕的全国财政工作会上表示,要围绕优化税制结构,加强总体设计和配套实施,推进所得类和货物劳务类税收制度改革,加快健全地方税体系,提升税收立法层次,完善税收法律制度框架,形成税法统一、税负公平、调节有度的税收制度体系。


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发表于 2018-1-8 15:49:39 | 显示全部楼层

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